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UOTC Field Handbook

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Original Versions Formated as Quick reference: PDF Google Doc

Purpose

The purpose of this handbook is a quick reference for basic comms and battle drills to use for all UOTC instruction. There is no requirement at UO to use these standards when gaming but ALL training courses and sessions must use it as a standard: Appendices are supplementary.

The Fireteam

The Fireteam is made of 4 men. (Can be called an Assault Group)

Fireteam Makeup.jpg

There are 2 pairs (or buddy teams) in each Fireteam The TL (team leader) and AR (automatic rifleman) are the lead buddy team. The GRN (grenadier) and RM (rifleman) are the second buddy team.


Fire Team Formations

FT Wedge Heavy Left.jpg
FT Wedge Heavy Right.jpg
Echelon Right.jpg
FT Line Heavy Left.jpg
FT Line Heavy Right.jpg
FT Staggered Column.jpg
FT File.jpg
FT Wedge (Heavy Left) FT Wedge (Heavy Right) Echelon Right Fireteam Line (Heavy Left) Fireteam Line (Heavy Right) Staggered Column  File

       

The Squad

The Squad = 9 men - 2 Fireteams and a Squad Leader (SL)

Squad Makeup.jpg
  The Lead Fireteam is named Alpha    The Second Fire team is named Bravo 

Squad Formations

Squad Line FT Wedge.jpg
Squad Staggered Column.jpg
Squad Column (Fireteam Wedge) (Traveling).jpg
Squad Column (Traveling Overwatch).jpg
  Squad Line (Fire Team Wedge) Squad Staggered Column Squad Column (Fireteam Wedge)

      (Traveling)

  Squad Column

(Traveling Overwatch)

SL is free to move within formation, Spacing is between fireteams        

General Communication

Calling Contacts

Report enemy contacts to your Fireteam

Only report facts and fill in missing details when they become evident. Reporting contacts is about speed, don’t use detail: Be concise & fast! Use 343 for initial call. Echo w/ direct speak

DDD The 3 “D’s” Direction, Distance and Description.

C ontact Say “CONTACT!” to gain attention of teammates
D irection Compass direction (Use right left etc only if front is specified by leader)
D istance Approx. Range like “Close” “Near”, “Mid”, “far”
   *Close  = < 50 m  
   *Near   = < 200m  (effective for everyone)
   *Mid    = 200m - 600m    (effective for AR)
   *Far    = > 600m    (usually ineffective)
D escription Enemy type, size (number) and location by terrain features.

Example: “Contact! | South | mid | 3 times infantry, left of red barn” NOTE: Everyone must echo contact as “Contact SEEN!” or “Contact NOT Seen”.

Orders

Orders will be short, firm, and clear. Team mates are not offended by sudden, sharp, commands. Parts of an Order

  1. Group: - the team you are addressing (a team can be one person)
  2. Body: - The details of the order
  3. Trigger: - signal to the group to execute the order

Echo: the order (use direct speak) during the pauses to relay the order to others and show you understand. [Do not echo commands sent over the radio or after you hear the command “Listen up”] Triggers:

  • Common triggers are “Move”, “Halt”, and “Fire”.

Example of an order:

“ALPHA... Sprint South, Line, to Rock Wall... MOVE!!”
Group   Body (Sprint to the South in line formation to the wall) Trigger

Fire Control – ROE, Commands, Rates of fire

ROE

Weapons Green(Weapons free) *Open or return fire at your own discretion;
  • Call the contact
Weapons Yellow(Weapons tight) *Default mode
  • The team is only to return fire if the team or other nearby friendlies take effective enemy fire.
Weapons Red (Weapons hold) *Return fire if your own team is under effective enemy fire. Never open fire without clearance.

       

Commands

Command Description
Watch & Shoot Stop shooting unless you see enemies in effective range (Eg: “Watch & Shoot! Watch & Shoot! Watch & Shoot! ”)
Shift Fire (and direction) Used to direct fire (Eg: “Shift Fire Left! Shift Fire Left! Shift Fire Left!)
Check Fire Only engage positively identified targets

(Mostly used in Friendly Fire situations: FF must not be returned!) (Eg: “Check Fire! Check Fire! Check Fire!”)

Cease Fire Stop shooting immediately and do not reopen fire

(Mostly used in the context of "all of the enemies are dead, stop shooting!") (Eg: “Cease Fire! Cease Fire! Cease Fire!”)

     

Rates of Fire

Command Description
Rapid Rate ~1 aimed shot/burst (6~8 rounds) at 1 second intervals
  • Command is “Rapid Rate”, “Rapid Rate”
Normal Rate Default mode

~ One shot (burst) every two or three seconds.

  • Command is "Normal Rate! Normal Rate!".
Slow Rate ~1 aimed shots/burst each 6 -10 seconds
  • Command is "Slow Rate! Slow Rate!"
Watch and Shoot Rapid fire at any visible targets.
  • Command is “Watch and Shoot”

     

Actions on

Depending on current Situation and fire control orders. FTL decides.

Contact (REEF Reaction to Effective Enemy Fire)

  1. Call Contact (see above)
  2. Everyone seek cover, (or go prone) and form line (towards reported enemy) Exception is: if taking effective fire while in the open from enemy in superior position – then sprint to cover (if available)
  3. Everyone looks for enemy positions and tries to make the reports more precise / fill in missing information.
    • Keep communicating, avoid tunnel vision, watch out for flanking enemies!
    • Especially the FTL is tasked with finding the enemy (use binosular)
  4. Everyone returns fire (rate=rapid) to the direction the contact was reported at, especially the AR needs to suppress immediately.
    • Everyone is expected to shoot! If no visual enemy is present, shoot at suspected positions and/or the general direction.
  5. FTL decides further actions
    • Common actions: report contact to superiors, adjust Rate of fire, initiate Fireteam rush (bounding by peel front), initiate peeling and/or flanking, initiate egression and break contact ("reverse bounding, ,peel rear“), get reinforcements / support, Execute "4-F's“

Ineffective or no enemy fire

  1. Call Contact
  2. All members hit the dirt and form line (towards reported enemy)
  3. Open fire only when ordered to (“Fire Fire Fire”, or “Watch and Shoot” or “Weapons Green”)
  4. FTL decides further orders

Common actions: report contact to superiors and wait for orders, hasty defence/attack, withdrawal, move to better position, …

  • If you hear firing but are not involved yourself you should continue on mission, if your CO wants you to stop he'll order you to

Casualties

  1. Somone else is the casualty:
    • Continue to fight the enemy.
    • Call out “{Player|Role} is hit!” frequently until recognized.
    • Wait for FTLs orders.

The usual procedure initiated by the FTL might look like this: 1) Gain fire superiority 2) Plan casualty retrieval 3) Move casualty to cover 4) initiate first aid.
Possible follow on actions could be: Calling a CLS, calling a medic, evacuating casualty to CCP, requesting help for fire superiority, requesting assets for casualty retrieval.

  1. You are the casualty:
    • Continue to fight the enemy.
    • Call out “{Your Name|Role} is hit!” frequently until recognized.
    • Wait for FTLs orders.
    • Initiate first aid on yourself once permitted to or if ignored by rest of the FT.

For informations regarding the first aid procedures visit Basic First Aid

Status report ( ACE Report)

FTL may request ACEREP from his subordinates to get information on the team's status; respond in team order. FTL: At least collect and send to SL as soon as firefight is completed.

A mmo

  • General ammo status:
   green    =    plenty of ammo left
   yellow   =    roughly half, but can continue mission
   red      =    nearly out of ammo, unable to continue mission effectively

C asualties

  • KIA and WIA of your team; at individuals: health status
   green    =    no sustained injuries
   yellow   =    light injuries, but fighting ability is not hindered
   red      =    critical injury that prevents mobility or needs immediate attention
   black    =    KIA (add names of soldiers)

E quipment

  • If critical equipment is used or lost (Satchels, AT, M249, ...)
   green    =    Report changes ("no change" "AT4 expended")
   red      =    only if mission-critical equipment was lost


Team Movement & Control

Golden Rule of UOTC Movement - Lead Element Always Moves First.

Command Description
Move When Ready Execute command when ready.
Halt/Hold Stop current movement/Use 360° security!
Pull security Establish all-round security
Squad Squad Squad Support Bounding by Squad
Group Group Group Support Bounding by Fire Team
Team Team Team Support Bounding by Buddy Team
Bound Sprinting between cover
Proword Description Example
Move Walking (default) in specified direction. Start or continue movement “Alpha … Move North … MOVE!”
Sprint Sprinting to area. (Specify Direction & destination) “Alpha … Sprint North, treeline … Move.”
Bound Sprinting under cover of support team. (Support team calls the trigger … “Covering)

““Alpha … Bound North, treeline … Bravo will cover”

Peel
  • See Appendix
Lateral Movement (right or left) [With or without destination] “Alpha … Peel Right! Peel Right! Peel Right! “
Rush
  • See Appendix
Short Bounds 3sec to prone. Specify Direction. Support covering. Default = Group “Alpha … Rush, North … Group, Group, Group.”
Rush Rear Break Contact by Short Bounds (3 sec) . Default = Group. Specify direction “Alpha Rush Rear,South Group, Group, Group.”
Traveling Overwatch One team on point with second team trailing Specified by increased spacing. “1’1 … Wide Order”
Bounding Overwatch Traveling with lead team moving with support team covering, then lead team covers while support team moves. Repeat. “Alpha … Bounding Overwatch North, … Group, Group, Group.”

       

Appendix 1 - Peeling

Peeling is used to get quickly into nearby cover with the squad moving either left or right of its line, usually whilst under fire. Effective suppression of the enemy will assist in maintaining good security throughout the maneuver. It is not meant for long distances. It is better to prepare the team in safety (“Team, we are going to cross that street, if we get under fire, peel back left into cover”).

  1. FTL calls “PEEL LEFT, PEEL LEFT” (or right)
    • More details if time permits (“.. behind the wall”)
  2. Right-most soldier turns outwards and runs along behind the line
  3. When reaching the next comrade, call “<Name>, last man!“ to get him prepared
  4. When reaching the second comrade, call “ONE MORE!“
    • This is the signal for the “last man“ to begin his peel (start at 2.)
      • Note: In a squad call ONE MORE half way down the line.
  5. When reaching the end of the line, get back in line formation and call “SET“.

      Peeling.jpg

         

Appendix 2 - RUSH

Movement from the prone position into a quick run for the duration of at most 3 seconds, finished with dropping on the floor again. (Memorize: „I'm up, they see me, I'm down“). 3 seconds is the time an average shooter needs to get aim on you and fire.

Short Bounds

Bounding works at any organizational level and is used to advance towards known or suspected enemies. There is always one “base of fire” element (trail) and one “maneuver” element (lead). These elements are designated by the SL or FTL as and when required, and are usually located in line beside each other. Bounding is usually verbally guided by the leader: (The following example assumes FT-level)

  1. FTL prepares by assigning base of fire and maneuver elements
    • by using buddy teams: “Alpha, … Rush, North, to treeline … Buddy one is Maneuver Element … Buddy 2 is Base of Fire, … GROUP GROUP GROUP!“
  2. Cover team establishes cover
    • With enemy: Buddy 2 starts covering fire and says “Buddy 2 Covering!”
    • Without enemy: Buddy 2 provides cover, scanning, weapons up & says “Buddy 2 Covering!”
  3. FTL calls “ Moving!” and starts a fire team rush with his buddy the AR.
  4. Buddy 1 establishes cover. After short bound (3 sec) goes prone and covers like above, either by shouting “ Covering!“ or by suppressing fire
  5. BOF bounds up the same way (calling „Moving!“ etc.)
  6. The FTL gives either new orders or the order for the maneuver element to start the next bounding cycle (often implicit).


RUSH.jpg
 Successive Bound (default)      Alternate Bound 

Breaking Contact

(Referred to as “Peel Rear”)

Breaking contact is started by the squad leader with the command:

“ Group … Break Contact … Direction/Description … Trigger”

Example – “One squad … BREAK CONTACT … South to Treeline … MOVE!!”

It is basically bounding to the rear.


       

Appendix 3 - Fireteam Roles

The fireteam is the smallest combat-effective unit possible.

FTL ( or TL) - Fireteam Leader

  • Uses his team as his weapon; keeps tactical overview: Fighting is second priority.
  • Assigns tasks when necessary and keeps the team together
  • Communicates with his Squad leader
  • Assigns Buddy Teams and their leaders (usually FTL+AR / GR+RM)
  • Assigns who is in charge if FTL gets killed (chain of command)
  • Establishes formations and maintains the members combat spacing
  • Controls and directs the team's fire (weapon state, rates of fire, ROE)
  • Gives decisive orders (tell who to do what) and leads by example
  • Always communicates to the team:
    • Current situation
    • Further plans (goal to achieve)

AR - Automatic Rifleman

  • Has 66% of the team's firepower
  • Usually covers the fireteam's priority sector
  • Suppressing and fixing the enemy with area fire (unless told otherwise)
  • Controls own rate of fire and is always aware of how much AR ammunition is left
  • On contact, achieve fire superiority

GRN - Grenadier

  • Is proficient with the grenade launcher and knows when to use it
  • Attacks enemy with indirect (when hidden) and direct fire
  • Focus on high value targets (machine guns, clusters of enemy, bunkers etc)

RM - Rifleman

  • Role is flexible, as the situation and the FTL decides
  • Delivers accurate and precise point fire (under the direction of the FTL)
  • May carry AT-Launcher, extra ammunition or special equipment

       

Appendix 4 - General Responsibilities

Know and assist your team

  • Use direct speak – stay off the radio.
  • Always work in your buddy team, but also in the fire team
  • Know the names and roles of your comrades (note it down)
  • Know where your comrades are
  • Know what they are doing (arc of fire, special orders, etc)
  • Tell your teammates what you are doing
  • Tell teammates when your weapon is down and when it is up again
  • Notify leader when your buddy goes down
  • Notify team when you are hit
  • Echo commands given by the FTL, (Show team you understand)
  • Avoid friendly fire: Always go behind your comrades, not in front

Know the bigger plan

  • Make sure you know what the FTL plans to do next
  • Know important locations
  • Know positions and movement plans of friendly troops

Know the enemy

  • Maintain situational awareness and stay alert.
  • Report contacts (double reporting is less worse than not reporting at all)
  • Tell the team anything suspicious you see

Know the environment

  • Look for appropriate cover and concealment in case you need it
  • Look for possible enemy positions
  • Look for effective firing positions for your weapon;
  • Let the FTL know when you can't find one

Know what to say and when to say it

  • Think before you talk (stay off the radio)
  • Be clear and concise.

       

Appendix 5 - General Communication

Personal Status

Statement Description
Hit / Down A Person is wounded or dead.
Weapon down A Weapon is temporarily out of order (jammed etc)
Weapon dry A weapon is out of ammo.
Up Person or Weapon returned to operational state.
Set Ready at the pre-agreed position.
Covering In position, weapon up and scanning or firing.
Ready I did what you told me and now I’m ready for orders.

General warnings

Statement Description
Frag out You are about to throw a frag grenade.
Grenade Grenade is about to explode near friendlies, take cover.
Incoming Indirect fire (Artillery, Mortars...) is about to splash near your position, take cover.

General terms

Statement Description
Roger/Copy Affirmation: “I understood that“, “I will do as ordered“
Negative Did not understand OR can't confirm etc.
Stand by Get ready to execute aforementioned (or obvious) action OR signal that further information will be passed shortly


       

Appendix 6 - Reports

COUNT (and RADIOCHECK)

Each unit will, in numerical order, respond with its callsign (or Roll at FT level). Used as a quick check to see if and which teammates are down. Example: TL: “Alpha ...Count .. Over”; AR: “AR“, GRN: “Grenadier“, RM: “Rifle” Radiocheck: As COUNT, but also say quality of radio link (“loud and clear“, “5 x 5“)

SALTA

FTL reports enemy sightings to SL (only proven facts again) - or SL to PL

S ize Size and Type of enemy force. Simplify when possible (20 Men = platoon). Identify vehicles if possible.
A ctivity (enemy) Posture, movement speed+direction, activity (patrol, ...)
L ocation Reference to map points. Or Grid coordinates.
T ime Time of the spotting or period of observation.
A ction What your team intends to do.

Situational report (SITREP)

FTL reports the current situation to SL

  1. Your location (grid, position, ...) and displacement
    • (Eg:Holding near train station, spread out 50m east to west“, etc.)
  2. Current situation at the location
    • (Eg:We are moving through, we are holding here, we are defending this position, we are staging for attack, we are receiving no enemy in area and are secure etc)
  3. Own actions
    • (What do you plan on doing)
  4. Administrative points
    • (Do you need anything? Ammo? Medical? Supplies? Reinforcements? Etc?)


Location Status/Report (LOCSTAT)

FTL reports team's position to SL

  1. Send location and displacement of own position.
  2. Send location of intended destination
    • Example: “ALPHA, … 200m South West of BP2, … Displacement 50 meter west to east, ... moving West to BP3.”


Appendix 7 - Radio procedures

Radio ABC: Accuracy, Brevity, Clarity

Generic message layout

  1. Initiate traffic: Call in receiver, and tell them your callsign
    • S: <receiving callsign>, this is <sending callsign>
    • R: <callsing> SEND (<quality of net like „loud and clear“>)
  2. Message(s)
    • S/R: <own callsign> <Message>, OVER (or BREAK)
      • (Announce longer messages with MESSAGE)
  3. Ending traffic: Initiator always terminates traffic
    • S: <your callsign> last Message, OUT

General radio terms

Statement Description
Break Used to announce a short pause (wait for sender to continue). Also used to split up lines in a formalized message.
Over This message is finished, you are clear to speak
Out The whole conversation is over, i don't expect an answer
Message I want to send a longer message, please stand by.
Wilco Will comply with your order
Oscar Mike On the Move, i am moving now, i'm on the way
How Copy Did you understand the last message?
Solid copy/Ack I understood your last message, transmission was good
Say again Please Repeat last message, last order, etc.

Note: „Repeat“ means „redo the last fire mission“; FO/FAC only

Wait out Please wait, will respond soon (1’2 … Contact, wait OUT!”)
Not heard No response heard. “Example 1’2 this is 1’6 Not heard OUT
Read back Sender wants you to repeat important information to make sure they were understood right. (Figures like grids etc)

       

Appendix 8 - Clearing Backblast procedure

    AT gunners must always clear the backblast area prior to firing:  

  1. Scan and warn: ‘’CLEAR BACKBLAST!“
    • When preparing an AT shot, quickly scan to your left and right to make sure you don't kill yourself or others from your backblast.
    • While doing so, yell out „CLEAR BACKBLAST!“ at least once loudly (direct speech, not radio).
  2. Clearing the backblast:”BACKBLAST ALL CLEAR!“
    • Any soldier nearby, when hearing the warning call, must immediately leave the danger area and announce it.
    • Any individual that is not within the backblast area double checks it is free of friendly personnel. When it has been visually confirmed that it's free, he yells „BACKBLAST ALL CLEAR!“
  3. Preparing the fire: ‘’ROCKET, ROCKET, ROCKET!“
    • When the Backblast was cleared OR the gunner can visually confirm himself for sure that it is clear, he says loudly and clearly three times „ROCKET...ROCKET...ROCKET!“
  4. Firing (verify aim and pull trigger)
    • After the last warning, the gunner verifies his aim and launches the rocket. He stays alert to cancel requests from comrades in case someone has entered his backblast danger area.

       

Appendix 9 - The Firefight

The 4 F's

F ind Locate the enemy and determine what it is doing (defending? flanking?)
F ix Achieve fire superiority. You have it when the enemy fire decreases significantly. When fire superiority is established, maintain it. Fire superiority is your first priority!
F lank When the enemy is fixed, send troops to his flank in order to negate enemy cover. The maneuver element should move fast and in cover while the base-of-fire element maintains suppression. Once in a good flanking position, open fire from there too.
F inish Troops from the maneuver element should enter the enemy position to clear it of any remaining enemy.

Actions after a firefight

  1. FTL organizes a hasty 360° defence for possible counter attacks
  2. FTL requests his team's status (via ACEREP) to get an overview about ammunition state, casualties and special equipment
  3. FTL organizes treatment of casualties and distribution of weapons, ammunition and equipment
  4. FTL reports status to superiors (SITREP + ACEREP)

       

APPENDIX 10 - Range and Size estimation

Basic formulas:

(metric)

Range = 1000 * Real-Size / Mils-in-Scope
Real-Size = Range / 1000 * Mils-in-Scope


Object Height Width Length
Person (standing, w. Helmet) ~1,80 m
Person (crouching, w. Helmet) ~1,55 m
T-72 (Hull, without MG or Gun) 2,20 m 3,37 m 6,95 m
T-90 (Hull, without MG or Gun) 2,10 m 3,30 m 6,95 m
BTR-90 2,98 m 3,20 m 7,64 m
BMP-3 2,44 m 3,20 m 7,31 m
Kamaz-5350 (Height at driving cab) 2,75 m 2,65 m 7,70 m
Ural-375 (Height at driving cab) 2,75 m 2,65 m 7,62 m
UAZ-469 2,02 m 1,79 m 4,03 m
M1 Abrams (Hull, without MG or Gun) 2,25 m 3,80 m 8,00 m
Bradley (Hull, without Antenna or Guns) 2,95 m 3,25 m 6,71 m
HMMWV 2,02 m 2,35 m 4,70 m
Hilux 1,91 m 1,95 m 5,35 m


Binoculars: Each line is 5 mils (Numbers: x * 10 = mils)

Acog: The width of the horizontal lines equals the width of the shoulders at the given range (Numbers: x * 100 = range)

Sniper scopes: Each dot is 1 mil

M145 (Machinegun optics): The vertical gaps represent the height of a crouched person (152,4 cm) at the range indicated by the adjacent hor. line

  • Quick distances should be spoken in hundreds and fifties to distinguish from directions. Example 200 = two hundred = 200 meters

       

APPENDIX 11 - Compass Directions

Directions are best referred to as compass directions.

Cardinal Directions

North (N), South (S), East (E) and West (W).

Ordinal Directions

Northwest (NW), Northeast (NE), Southwest (SW), and Southeast (SE).

Ordinal Directions .jpg


  • Azimuths (commonly called bearings) are discouraged for quick references but when used must be spoken as 3 separate digits
  • Example: AZ 086 degrees will be spoken as “Zero, .. Eight, .. Six.” NOT as “Eighty Six”.

Subordinal Compass Directions

Many players find it easy to use more detailed directions. With a little practice using Cardinal and Ordinal compass directions you may find yourself naturally starting to specify points between the ordinal bearings.

Subordinal Compass Directions.jpg


Avoid using numbers for direction