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- The following document may not necessarily reflect the views and doctrine of the UOTC.
Intent Statement and scope:
- The intent of this guide is to provide guidance on the role of squad or section leader, or other subordinate leadership position within a platoon-sized element.
- The scope of this guide... ((words)).
- 1 Mission of the Squad Leader
- 2 Controlling the Squad
- 3 Communication and Reporting
- 4 Assuming Command of the Platoon
- 5 Section
- 6 Section
- 7 Significantly Differential Part Of Information
- 8 See Also
Mission of the Squad Leader
The squad (or section) leader is responsible for controlling their squad and executing the orders of the platoon commander. Squad leader typically delegate direct control of individual members down to fire team leaders and instead control the movements and actions of the fire teams as a whole. Effective squad leading in ArmA is one of the most demanding tasks, as they act as the link between the platoon commander and the platoon. They are required to maintain communication with their own squad, adjacent squads, and platoon leadership at the same time.
Controlling the Squad
A squad or section is typically an element composed of 6-12 men. Squads can vary in size and organization between different militaries and types of troops. A Soviet airborne squad for example is comparatively small and dependent on close coordination with infantry fighting vehicles and adjacent squads, while a US Marine Corps rifle squad is large, but able to operate more independently. These differences translate into how closely a squad leader needs to manage their squad members. They may be required to simultaneously control a fire team as well as the squad as a whole, or have team leaders to micromanage the individual squad members.
At mission start, the squad leader may wish to ensure that each member knows which team they are assigned to. Using the team menu to assign colors to each fire team can also help make it easier for teams to stay together.
The squad may have additional ammunition available at crates or in vehicle inventories, while spare ammunition is important, it must be weighed against the mobility and stamina requirements of the mission. For example an attacking element may wish to remain lighter in order to move faster, while a base of fire or defending element may stock up on spare ammunition in expectation of prolonged firing.
Once organized and ready to move, the squad leader should report to the platoon leader or their RTO that the squad is ready.
Formations and Movement
As with fire teams, squads have their own formations the squad leader can employ. The advantages and disadvantages widely mirror those of the fire team formations. The squad leader can combine an overall squad formation with a different fire team formation, for example a "squad column, fire team wedge" indicates the squad leader wishes the fire teams to individually form into wedge, but the teams as a whole will form behind one another in column.
Whenever possible, the squad leader should strive to extend their teams over a wide an area as practical. Bunching up is a common problem, while it offers easier control, it limits the ability of individual fire teams to maneuver on the enemy, and makes it easier for the enemy to observe and put fire on the entire squad. The squad leader should remember that they control their team leaders, and use them to better maneuver the squad.
The squad leader may at time wish to bound his fire teams in order to provide security when moving through dangerous areas, or to keep constant suppression on the enemy when closing with them. The squad leader should clearly communicate their intent to begin bounding by fire teams to the relevant team leaders, and stay in a position where they can best observe and control the teams. Provided the team leaders are competent enough, the squad leader should not have to micromanage when each team moves and halts, instead leaving it to the team leaders to communicate between themselves.
If the squad leader is not responsible for directly leading a team themselves, they should position themselves with the team they feel best suits the situation.
The squad leader is responsible for ensuring his squad reaches their intended destinations, following the plan of movement ordered by the platoon commander. The squad leader should be adept at navigation, including doing so without more advanced aids such as GPS. Although responsible for navigation, the squad leader should avoid leading the squad directly from the front when contact is likely, as this limits his awareness of the fire teams and may result in him becoming an early casualty in a firefight.
First and foremost, the squad leader should ensure they keep in constant contact with their team leaders. Team leaders, in turn, will remain in contact with their team members. This may come in the form of short-range radios such as the PRC-343 if available. If no intra-squad radios are available, the squad leader will have to rely on voice or hand signals to communicate.
Different terrains bring unique challenges to leading a squad.
Forests and jungles reduce visibility and offer a dense concentration of concealment and potentially cover. Engagement ranges are typically very close in forests, and firefights tend to be short and intense due to the proximity of combat. Control can also become difficult as the squad leader can have difficulty visually identifying his squad members. Keeping the squad in formation and within voice distance is key. Line formation is typically used when sweeping or clearing an area due to the amount of concealment the enemy can utilize. Movement should be slow and deliberate through forests, and security of the squad should be kept high at all times. It is extremely easy for a small enemy team to flank or infiltrate friendly lines. When close contact is made with the enemy in a forest, maximum violence should be used to win the firefight as quickly as possible. Massed hand grenades are especially effective.
- Lack of security.
- Noorot enough spacing.
- Not thoroughly clearing bushes, low trees, and other concealment.
- Friendly fire due to lack of situational awareness and control.
- Not being aggressive enough in the attack, stalling.
Urban areas, or dense concentrations of buildings and man-made structures offer an abundance of cover and make securing areas a more complex task compared to more natural terrain. In addition, the threat of enemies in upper floors and rooftops of structures means the squad leader has to consider what is above and below them as well as around them.
As with forests, urban areas make it easier for enemies to flank an unprepared squad. Placing squad members to provide security at likely enemy approaches can help to make the squad a more difficult target. Controlling streets and alleyways help to limit enemy movement between blocks of buildings, the squad leader should place their automatic weapons and machine guns to cover these areas.
Approaching an urban area over open ground is ill advised unless supported by overwhelming fire support. Squad leaders should always look for the most concealed and covered approach, with the smallest amount of windows or other potential firing positions facing towards the avenue of approach.
When clearing or attacking a building, hand grenades should be used whenever the enemy is known or suspected to occupy a structure. Grenades use a defending enemy's advantage of cover and limited entrances against them, forcing them to either flee out of the building, seek limited cover, or retreat upwards or downwards. Doorways and hallways are extremely favorable towards defenders, and should be avoided or moved through as fast as possible. When defending or occupying a building, ensure proper security is in place towards entrances to the building. An escape route should be considered if the building is likely to be overwhelmed by enemy forces, or fire support such as tanks or artillery target the building. When occupying, keep your squad in positions that minimize their silhouette. Occupy the top floor instead of an exposed rooftop, and displace to different positions continuously.
- Not achieving fire superiority, or poorly placed fire support when attacking buildings.
- Lack of security when the squad is stationary.
- Poor spacing.
- Slow movement through doorways, alleyways, and other chokepoints.
- Attacking the "long" axis of urban area that maximizes advantage to defenders.
- Not using hand grenades before entry.
- Taking up exposed positions on rooftops.
- Silhouetting or moving constantly in easily observable doorways or windows.
Communication and Reporting
Communicating with Higher
As the link between the platoon and platoon commander, squad leader must remain in constant contact with the platoon commander. Even in the midst of the fight, the squad leader needs to remain informed as to the traffic on the radio.
The squad leader should be aware at all time of his general position. When requested by the platoon commander, or when the squad leader feels it is appropriate, they should be ready to provide a grid or other means of communicating their squad's position.
2, This is 6. What's your location, over?
6, this is 2. Grid 123 456, over.
Or, if located in an easily identifiable position,
6, this is 2. We're in the compound 100 meters north of objective 1, over.
If contact with the enemy is made, the squad leader should first and foremost ensure his squad is oriented onto, and ready to or already engaging before reporting to higher. In the case of contact that requires the squad leader to direct his squad immediately, giving a short warning to the platoon leader is appropriate.
6, this is 2! In contact! Wait, out.
This lets the platoon commander know 2nd squad is in a contact that prevents them from providing a detailed report, and will provide further information when able.
6, this is 2. Contact report, over.
2, this is 6. Send it, over.
2, enemy squad, 200 meters front, pulling back to the north, over.
Example of a more detailed report, giving at minimum a description, range/location, and actions.
Communicating with Adjacent Elements
In addition to communicating with the platoon commander, the squad leader should ensure he communicates with fellow squads, vehicles, and other elements within the platoon. Keeping friendlies informed as to the squads position, and the composition, disposition, and actions of the enemy help the platoon to react to new developments and reduce the chance of friendly fire.
2, This is 1. Were moving up on your left, over.
Example communication from 1st squad to 2nd squad.
Assuming Command of the Platoon
Significantly Differential Part Of Information
Triple header, Less Subdivision
Looks Tidier When Appropriate